Unresponsive ship came within 600 metres of Russian destroyer before it opened fire with small arms: defence ministry.
A ministry statement says the destroyer Smetlivy was unable to establish radio contact with the approaching Turkish ship, which also failed to respond to visual signals and flares.
"The crew of the Russian patrol ship Smetlivy - which was located 22km from the Greek island of Lemnos in the northern part of the Aegean Sea - avoided collision with a Turkish seiner," the defence ministry told the AFP news agency.
Turkey's military attache in Moscow has been summoned by the defence ministry over the incident.
Tensions between Moscow and Ankara have been heightened since a Turkish jet downed a Russian bomber along the Syrian border last month, killing one of the two pilots.
Moscow has imposed a series of economic sanctions against Ankara after the incident, sparking the biggest crisis between the two countries since the Cold War.
Meanwhile, the Turkish army on Sunday banned staff from taking holidays in Russia, state-run media reported.
The prohibition, which applies to both personnel and military academy students, was described as a "precautionary measure after the Russian warplane, which violated (Turkey's) borders, was downed in accordance with the rules of engagement," Anatolia news agency said.
Army personnel are expected to behave in a way that is "worthy" of the Turkish military while on vacation, Anatolia added.
Following the incident, a military attache at Turkish embassy in Moscow has been urgently summoned to the Russian Defense Ministry by Deputy Defense Minister Anatoly Antonov.
The incident comes amid Russian-Turkish tensions following the downing of a Russian Su-24 bomber by the Turkish Air Force over Syria on November 24.
Ankara claimed that the aircraft had violated its airspace, however, Russian defense officials provided evidence that the aircraft had not crossed into Turkey. The pilot, who survived the crash, also confirmed that the alleged violation did not take place. Moreover, the crew, according to the pilot, did not receive any warning prior to the attack.